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Complements

Sentences are the smallest units in language that can independently express at idea. Words and phrases in sentences can be divided into sentence elements based on their use. There are six kinds of sentence elements in Chinese:
1. Subject
2. Predicate
3. Object
4. Attributive
5. Adverbial adjunct
6. Complement
 
● Complements
A complement is a word or phrase placed after the predicate that adds information about the action experienced including time, probably, direction, outcome, degree, or quantity. For instance,
这本书我看了两遍。(I have read this book for twice.) (The complement 两遍 is located after the verb predicate .)
这只苹果重一点。(This apple is a little bit heavier.) (The complement 一点 is placed after the adjective predicate.)
 
Usually, an adjective, verb, number, or complementary phrase acts as the complement. The structural particle 的 is often placed between the modified word and the complement. There are five types of complements:
 
Complement of Result
A complement of result is a sentence element placed after a verb predicate to indicate the result of the verb. For example,
这里的美景风景我都看见了。(I saw all the beautiful scenery here.) (The complement of result 见 indicates the result of the verb predicate .)
 
Verbs, adjectives, and prepositional phrases can act as complements of result. For instance:
我妈妈干完了家务活。(My mum finished all the housework.) (The verb acts as the complement of result.)
他准备好了。 (He is properly prepared.) (The adjective acts as the complement of result.)
 
Complements of degree are placed after the predicate to indicate the degree of the action. For instance:
她说得很好。(She speaks well.) (The adjective acts as the complement of degree expressing the manner that the verb predicate was performed.)
我跑得很慢。(I run very slowly.) (The endocentric phrase 很快 acts as the complement of degree describing the manner of the verb predicate .)
 
The structural particle must be used between the modified word and the complement of degree. The negative is formed by placing the adverb after the structural particle. For instance,
他写得不好。 (He does not write well.)
他跑得不快。 (He does not run quickly.)
 
Adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, endocentric phrases, coordinative phrases, complementary word phrases, verb-object phrases, and subject-predicate phrases can all act as complements of degree. For instance:
他跳得远。(He jumps far.) (The adjective acts as the complement of degree.)
你最近生活怎么样? (How is everything going these days?) (The pronoun 怎么样 acts as the complement of degree.)
 
If a predicate takes both an object and a complement of degree at the same time then the verb should be repeated with the complement of degree being placed after the second instance of the verb. For instance,
他跳高跳得很远。(He jumps high.) (The verb predicate is repeated.)
 
The adverb 极了 is a special case of a complement of degree that does not require the particle . For instance,
菜好吃极了。(The dishes are really delicious.) (The structural particle 得 is not needed.)
 
A complement of quantity is a word or phrase that is placed after the predicate to indicate frequency, duration, or height, length, etc. A complement of quantity that expresses the frequency of an action is called a complement of frequency. A complement of quantity that expresses the duration of an action is called a duration of frequency. A complement of quantity that expresses the height, length, etc of an action is called a complement of nominal measure. For instance,
看了两遍(read twice) (The complement of frequency 两遍 expresses how many times the action occurred.)
 
An object referring to a place or position should be placed between the predicate verb and the complement of direction. An object referring to a person or thing can either be placed before or after a simple complement of direction. For instance,
他回家去了。(He went back home.) (The object, expressing a location, is placed in between the predicate verb and the complement of direction 去.)