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The Subject

Sentences are the smallest units in language that can independently express at idea. Words and phrases in sentences can be divided into sentence elements based on their use. There are six kinds of sentence elements in Chinese:
1. Subject
2. Predicate
3. Object
4. Attributive
5. Adverbial adjunct
6. Complement
 
●  The Subject
In Chinese the most common form of composing a sentence is using subject and predicate sentence elements. Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, numerals, duplicated measure words, and phrases can all act as subjects. For instance,
主席 在讲话。(The president is giving a speech.)( 主席is the subject and is a noun.)
很淘气。(He is very naughty.) ( is the subject and is a pronoun.)
跳舞 很健康。(Dancing is quite healthy.) (跳舞 is the subject and is also a verb.)
乐观 有益于身体健康。(Optimism is good for us health.) (乐观 is the subject and is an adjective.)
十三 是个不幸运的数字。(Thirteen is an unlucky number.) (十三 is the subject and is also a numeral.)
 
The subject is usually at the start of the sentence, expressing the target of a statement.