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History of Hanyu Pinyin

History ahead of 1949
In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi qiji (The Miracle of Western Letters) in Beijing. This was the initial book to utilize the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years later, an additional Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi ru ermu zi (Aid to the Eyes and Ears of Western Literati) at Hangzhou. Neither book had significantly fast impact about the way in which Chinese considered about their writing system, as well as the romanizations they described had been intended much more for Westerners than for that Chinese, but implied a very first hard work which eventually gave origin to pinyin.

One earliest Chinese thinker to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late-Ming to early Qing Dynasty scholar-official Fang Yizhi (1611–1671).
It was not until two hundred years later that the idea of spelling planted in China by the Jesuits had sufficiently matured for that Chinese themselves to start proposing its application for the design and style of new and even more productive scripts. The initial late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a program of spelling was Song Shu (1862-1910). A student of the great scholars, Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the beautiful impact of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there. This galvanized him into activity on the variety of fronts, one of the most essential currently being reform of the script. Even though Song didn't himself truly create a program for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts.

Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet utilizing roman letters designed inside the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad in the early 1930s. This Sin Wenz or "New Writing", from which the present pinyin method differs only somewhat, was a lot more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, with all the major exception that it didn't indicate tones.
In 1940, many thousand members attended a Border Area Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, each contributed their calligraphy (in characters) for that masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal. Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters incorporated Sun Yat-sen's son, Sun Fo; Cai Yuanpei, the country's most prestigious educator; Tao Xingzhi, a top educational reformer; and Lu Xun. Above thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus significant numbers of translations, biographies (which includes Lincoln, Franklin, Edison, Ford, and Charlie Chaplin), some modern Chinese literature, as well as a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Area Government declared the Sin Wenz had exactly the same legal standing as traditional characters in government and public paperwork. Several educators and political leaders looked forward to the day whenever they will be universally accepted and entirely substitute characters. Opposition arose, nevertheless, because the method was significantly less effectively adapted to writing regional languages, and consequently would need studying Mandarin. Sin Wenzi fell into relative disuse during the following years.
History after 1949
Pinyin was created as element of the Chinese government project in the 1950s. Certainly one of the central people was Zhou Youguang, often known as "the father of Pinyin", as he led a government committee in building the romanization system. Zhou was operating in a New York financial institution when he made the decision to return to China to assist rebuild the nation after the establishment of the PRC in 1949. Believing he was assisting Mao Zedong create a democracy, Zhou grew to become an economics professor in Shanghai. In 1954 China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for Reform of the Chinese Written Language. Zhou was assigned the task of helping to create a fresh romanization program.

Hanyu Pinyin was based on many preexisting systems: (Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, and also the diacritic markings from zhuyin). "I’m not the father of pinyin," Zhou explained, "I’m the son of pinyin. It’s [the outcome of] a long tradition from the later years of the Qing dynasty down to nowadays. But we restudied the trouble and revisited it and produced it far more excellent."
A first draft was published on February 12, 1956. The initial edition of Hanyu pinyin was accredited and adopted at the Fifth Session of the first National People's Congress on February 11, 1958. It had been then launched to major schools being a method to train Regular Chinese pronunciation and used to improve the literacy price among adults.

Beginning in the early 1980s, in regards to folks from Mainland China, western publications began employing the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system alternatively of earlier romanization system; this alter followed the normalization of diplomatic relations between the US as well as the People’s Republic of China in 1979. In 2001, the PRC Government issued the Nationwide Common Language Law, supplying a legal basis for applying pinyin.