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Some Rules of Hanyu Pinyin

1. Standard principles:
1.1 Words would be the basic units for spelling the Chinese Common Language.
rén (person/people)
朋友 péngyou (friend[s])
 
1.2 Structures of two or three syllables that indicate a complete idea are linked:
 全国 quánguó (the whole nation)
对不起  duìbuqǐ (sorry)
 
 1.3 Separate terms with much more than 4 syllables if they're able to be separated into words, or else link each of the syllables:
 无缝钢笔 wúfèng gāngbǐ (seamless pen)
研究生院  yánjiūshēngyuàn (graduate school)
 
1.4 Reduplicated monosyllabic words are linked, but reduplicated disyllabic words are separated:
人人 rénrén (everybody)
 尝试尝试 chángshi chángshi (give it a try)
Juxtaposed reduplications (AABB structures) are separated by a hyphen:
来来往往  láilái-wǎngwǎng (come to and fro)
清清楚楚  qīngqīng-chǔchǔ (be clearly)
 
1.5 In particular conditions, for that function of creating it hassle-free to read and realize the words, a hyphen might be added:
环保 huán-bǎo (environmental protection)
十七八岁 shíqī-bā suì (17 or 18 years old)
 
 2. Nouns:
 2.1 Monosyllabic prefixes and suffixes are linked with nouns. Prefixes: - (vice), zǒng- (general/main/chief), fēi- (non), fǎn- [anti], chāo- (super/surpass), lǎo – (old/venerable), A – (marker of a nickname/endearment), (-ble), - (non), and so forth. Suffixes: -zǐ, -ér, -tóu (head, nominal ending), -xìng (nature),者/员 -zhě/yuán (-ist), -jiā (expert/-ist), -shǒu (hand/person/expert/-ist), -huà (-ized), men (-s/es), and so forth). For example:
 副部长 fù-bùzhǎng (vice-director of a [government] department),
总工程师  zǒng-gōngchéngshī (chief engineer)
艺术家 yìshùjiā (artist [in general])
 
2.2 Nouns along with the directional words/locations them are separated.
 门外 mén wài (outside the door)=mén wàimian (/wàibiān/wàitou)
火车上面  huǒchē shàngmian (on the train)
The syllables of lexical items are linked.
海外  hǎiwài (this means “overseas,” not “outside of the sea”)
 
2.3 Surnames and given names (xìngmíng/míngzi) are written separately in the Chinese Han language. The very first letters of surnames and the given names are capitalized. Pen names and nickname are written due to the same principles:
王建国  Wáng Jiànguó
 东方朔 Dōngfāng Shuò
 张三 Zhāng Sān
A individual name along with the person’s qualified title are separated:
王部长  Wáng bùzhǎng
 李先生 Lǐ xiānsheng/xs
The first letter of private addresses such as Lǎo, Xiǎo, Dà, ā, and so forth are capitalized.. For instance:
 小刘  Xiǎo Liú (Little Liu)
吴老 Wú Lǎo (honorable Old Wu)
Once the surname of historically well-known figures is combined by using a respectful or descriptive term by which they can be frequently acknowledged, the syllables are linked, along with the very first letter is capitalized. For example:
孔子 Kǒngzǐ (Confucius)
包公  Bāogōng (Grand Judge Bao)
西施  Xīshī (Beauty Xishi)
 
 2.4 Proper names and general names of places are separated and the first letter of each of the names is capitalized.
 北京市  Běijīng Shì (Beijing City)
 洞庭湖  Dòngtíng Hú (Lake Dongting)
The monosyllabic prefixes or suffixes of appropriate names and general names are linked. For instance:
景山后街 Jǐngshān Hòujiē (Back Street of Jingshan)
 朝阳门内 南小街Cháoyángménnèi Nánxiǎojiē (Southern Small Street Inside the Gate Facing the Sun)
Link the syllables of established names for villages, towns, and other places when it is not necessary to distinguish whether they are suitable names or basic names (the initial letter is capitalized). For instance:
王村 Wángcūn (Wang Village)
 周口店 Zhōukǒudiàn (a place near Beijing where the fossilized remains of Peking Man were discovered)
 三潭印月 Sāntányìnyuè (Moon Reflected in Three Ponds)
 
 2.5 Private and area names not in the Chinese Han language, depending on the principle of “according to all the customized of the people in question”, are written either in the original language or transcribed in Roman letters. For example:
 爱因斯坦 Einstein (ài’īnsītǎn)
 伦敦 London (Lúndūn)
 华盛顿 Washington (Huáshèngdùn)
 
3. Verbs:
3.1 (Monosyllabic) action verbs are linked with all the suffixes zhe, le, guo. By way of example:
 看着 kànzhe (reading/looking)
 看了 kànle (read [once at a past moment/time])
 看过 kànguò (have/had read [at least once])
Le at the end of a sentence is separated from sentence. By way of example:
 火车到了 huǒchē dào le (Completed action: The train came/has come.)
 
 3.2 Action Verbs and their Objects are separated. For example:
 看信 kàn xìn (read a letter),
 吃鱼 chī yú (eat fish)
 开玩笑 kāi wánxiào (make a joke)
However, the action verb and object are linked once they together express a single notion. For instance:
 吃饭 chīfàn (eat/make a living)
 睡觉 shuìjiào (sleep)
 看书 kànshū (read)
 打球 dǎqiú (play [ball game])
The syllables of Verb+Object type compound phrases are written separately when one more component is inserted between the syllables. For example:
鞠躬 jūgōng (bow) 
 
 3.3 An Action Verb and its complement are linked if the two are monosyllabic. Or they can be separated. As an example:
 搞坏 gǎohuài (ruin it)
 走进来 zǒu jìnlái (walk in)
 修理好 xiūlǐ hǎo (fix/repair [and make] it [mended])
 
 4. Adjectives:
 4.1 Monosyllabic adjectives link with their reduplicated prefixes or suffixes. For example:
 蒙蒙亮 mēngmēngliàng (dimly bright)
 亮堂堂 liàngtāngtāng (brightly lit)
 4.2 Adjectives are separated from xiē, yīxiē, diǎnr, yīdiǎn that follow them. For example:
 快一些 kuài (yī)xiē ([be] faster)
 快一点 kuài (yī)diǎn ([be] faster)
 
5. Pronouns:
 5.1 Guys signifies the plural and it is linked with the noun in front of it. For example:
 我们 wǒmen (we/us)
 他们 tāmen (they/them)
 5.2 Demonstrative pronouns zhè, nà and the interrogative demonstrative pronoun nǎ are separated from the nouns that follow them.
 这(个)人zhè (ge) rén (this person)
 这只船 zhè zhī chuán (this boat)
 哪张报纸 nǎ zhāng bàozhǐ (which newspaper?)
zhè, nà, nǎ are linked with xiē, me, yàng, bān, lǐ, biān, huǐr, ge
 这些 zhèxiē (these)
 这个 zhège (this one)
 那样 nàyàng (that way/then)
 
 5.3 Gè, měi, mǒu, běn, gāi, wǒ, nǐ, and so forth are separated from the nouns or measure words that follow them. For example:
 各国 gè guó (each country)
 各个 gè gè (each, every)
 每年 měi nián (every year)
 该公司 gāi gōngsī (this/that company)
 
 6. Numerals and measure phrases:
 6.1 Total numbers from eleven to ninety-nine are written with each other
  十五 shíwǔ (fifteen)
  三十三 sānshísān (thirty-three)
 
 6.2  Bǎi (hundred), qiān (thousand), wàn (ten thousand), yì (hundred million) are linked with the integer in front of them, but “ten thousand” and “hundred million” are separated from zeros following them. For example:
 九亿零七万二千三百五十六 jiǔyì líng qīwàn èrqiān sānbǎi wǔshíliù (900,072,356)
 
 6.3 Di + Numeral indicates order, and it really is linked by a hyphen with all the amount. For example:
 第十三 dì-shísān (thirteenth)
 第二十八 dì-èrshíbā (twenty-eighth)
6.4 Numbers and Measure Wordspeople)
 一个人 yī ge rén (one people)
 两大碗饭 liǎng dà wǎn fàn (two big bowls of cooked rice)
“Duō, lái, jǐ” indicate a rough amount, and they're separated from the numbers and measure words that precede and follow them. For instance:
 一百多个 yībǎi duō ge (more than 100)
 十来万人 shí lái wàn rén (about 100,000 people)
 
 7. Perform Words (xūcí) are separated from other phrases:
 7.1 Adverbs:
 很好 hěn hǎo (be good/fine)
 最大 zuì dà (be the biggest)
 非常快 fēicháng kuài (be extremely fast)
 7.2 Prepositions:
 在前面 zài qiánmiàn (in the front)
 生于1940年 shēng yú 1940 nian (was born in 1940)
 7.3 Conjunctions:
 你和我 nǐ hé wǒ (you and I);
 你来还是不来 nǐ lái háishi bù lái? (Are you coming [or not]?)
 7.4 The Constructive Auxiliaries (jiégòu zhùcí) de/d (的 ), de/di (地 ), de (得), zhi (之).
 卖菜的 mài cài d(e) (vegetable seller[s])
 慢慢地走 mànmàn de/di zou (walk slowly)
 红得很 hóng de hěn (be really red)
 7.5 The Model Auxiliary is written separately at the end of a sentence:
 你知道吗? nǐ zhīdào ma? (Do/Did you know)?
 快去吧!Kuài qù ba! (Hurry and go!)
 7.6 Exclamation:
 啊,真美! A, zhēn měi! (Ah, It’s really beautiful!)
 7.7 Onomatopoeia:
  Pā! (Bang!”)
 
  8. Set Phrases (chéngyǔ):
 8.1 Four-character Set Phrases that can be divided into two halves are linked by a hyphen. For example:
 层出不穷 céngchū-bùqióng (happens/ed endlessly)
 光明磊落 guāngmíng-lěiluò (be righteous)
 8.2 All other four-character set phrases and well-known expressions (shúyǔ) that cannot be readily segmented are linked. For example:
 不亦乐乎 bùyìlèhū (Isn’t it a happy thing?)
 爱莫能助 àimònéngzhù (Sorry that I can’t help you.)
 
 9. Capital Letters:
 9.1 The letter at the beginning of the sentence is capitalized. As an example:
Míngtian nǐ qù ma? (Are you going tomorrow?)
 9.2 The initial letter of the appropriate noun is capitalized. For example:
 北京大学 Běijīng Dàxué (Peking University)
 泰山 Tài Shān (Mount Tai)
 黄河 Huáng Hé (Yellow River)
 
10. Hyphenation:
 10.1 Care should be taken to hyphenate only between the syllables of words and other linked expressions at the ends of lines of running texts.
 
11 Indication of Tones:
 11.1 Only the original tones are indicated; tone sandhi is not indicated.